chronic health conditions

Here are some of the common chronic health conditions facing Australians:

Cardiovascular Disease

Cardiovascular disease (CVD) remains a significant health issue in Australia. CVD refers to diseases affecting the heart and blood vessels, including coronary heart disease (angina and heart attacks), stroke, heart failure, and other related conditions.

Key facts about cardiovascular disease in Australia:


Cardiovascular disease is one of the leading causes of death and disability in Australia. It accounts for a significant proportion of all deaths in the country each year.

Risk Factors

Several risk factors contribute to the development of CVD. These include high blood pressure, high cholesterol levels, smoking, physical inactivity, unhealthy diet, obesity, diabetes, family history of CVD, and age.

Public Health Initiatives

The Australian government and various health organizations have implemented several public health initiatives to reduce the burden of CVD. These initiatives focus on raising awareness, promoting healthy lifestyles, and providing access to medical care and treatments.

Cardiac Care

Australia has a well-developed healthcare system with access to advanced medical technologies and expertise in cardiac care. Major cities have dedicated heart centres and specialized cardiac units in hospitals.

Research and Education

There is ongoing research and education on CVD in Australia to understand the risk factors better, develop more effective treatments and improve prevention strategies.

Indigenous Health

It’s important to note that Indigenous Australians have a higher cardiovascular disease prevalence than non-Indigenous Australians. Addressing this disparity includes targeted health programs and initiatives to improve healthcare access and education within Indigenous communities.

Chronic Kidney Disease (CKD)

CKD is a long-term condition in which the kidneys’ ability to filter waste and excess fluids from the blood gradually declines, leading to the buildup of harmful substances in the body.

Key facts about chronic kidney disease in Australia:

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CKD is relatively common in Australia, with an estimated one in 10 Australian adults affected. The prevalence increases with age and is more prevalent in Indigenous Australians than non-Indigenous Australians.

Risk Factors

Several risk factors contribute to the development and progression of CKD, including diabetes, hypertension (high blood pressure), obesity, smoking, family history of kidney disease, and cardiovascular disease.

Early Detection and Management

Early detection and management of CKD are crucial in slowing its progression and preventing complications. Regular health check-ups and screenings are essential, especially for individuals with risk factors.

Dialysis and Transplantation

For individuals with advanced CKD, renal replacement therapies like dialysis and kidney transplantation become necessary. Australia has well-established dialysis centres and transplant programs to provide these life-saving treatments.

National Chronic Kidney Disease Management Strategy

The Australian government, through the National Chronic Kidney Disease Management Strategy, has been working to improve the prevention, detection, and management of CKD. The strategy aims to increase awareness, educate healthcare professionals, and enhance access to care and services.

Indigenous Health

As with many chronic health conditions, there are disparities in the prevalence and management of CKD between Indigenous and non-Indigenous Australians. Efforts are being made to address these disparities and improve kidney health outcomes for Indigenous communities.


Diabetes is a chronic condition that affects how your body processes glucose (sugar), leading to elevated blood sugar levels.


Diabetes is one of Australia’s most common chronic health conditions. According to the Australian Bureau of Statistics (ABS), in 2017-2018, approximately 1.2 million Australians (around 5% of the population) had been diagnosed with diabetes. Additionally, there are many more people with undiagnosed or pre-diabetes.

Types of Diabetes

There are two main types of diabetes in Australia:

  • Type 1 Diabetes: This is an autoimmune condition where the body’s immune system mistakenly attacks and destroys the insulin-producing cells in the pancreas. Type 1 diabetes is generally diagnosed in children and young adults.
  • Type 2 Diabetes: The most common form of diabetes and is characterised by insulin resistance, where the body’s cells do not respond appropriately to insulin. Type 2 diabetes can develop at any age. Still, it is more common in older adults and those with risk factors such as obesity, a sedentary lifestyle, and a family history of diabetes.
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Risk Factors

The risk factors for type 2 diabetes include overweight or obesity, physical inactivity, unhealthy diet, family history of diabetes, ethnicity (Indigenous Australians, Pacific Islanders, and South Asians have a higher risk), and age.


Poorly managed diabetes can lead to severe complications over time, such as cardiovascular disease, kidney damage, nerve damage (neuropathy), eye problems (retinopathy), and foot problems that may lead to amputation.


Diabetes management involves regularly monitoring blood glucose levels, adopting a healthy diet, engaging in regular physical activity, taking medications or insulin as prescribed, and attending regular medical check-ups.

National Diabetes Services Scheme (NDSS)

The NDSS is an initiative by the Australian Government that supports and subsidises essential diabetes-related products and services for eligible individuals.


Diabetes is often preventable or manageable with lifestyle changes. Public health initiatives focus on promoting healthy eating, physical activity, and weight management to reduce the risk of type 2 diabetes.


Obesity is a condition characterised by excessive body fat accumulation, and it is associated with various health risks and complications.

Key facts about obesity in Australia:


The prevalence of obesity has been steadily increasing over the past few decades. According to data from the Australian Bureau of Statistics (ABS) in 2017-2018, approximately two-thirds of Australian adults were classified as overweight or obese. This includes 31.9% who were overweight and 30.1% who were obese.

Childhood Obesity

Childhood obesity is also a concern in Australia. According to the Australian Institute of Health and Welfare (AIHW), in 2017-2018, 25.5% of children aged 5-17 years were overweight or obese.

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Health Risks

Obesity is associated with various health risks and complications, including an increased risk of type 2 diabetes, cardiovascular disease, hypertension (high blood pressure), certain cancers, sleep apnoea, osteoarthritis, and mental health issues.

Contributing Factors

The rising prevalence of obesity in Australia is influenced by various factors, including a sedentary lifestyle, poor dietary habits (such as excessive consumption of unhealthy foods high in sugar, fat, and salt), increased portion sizes, and limited access to nutritious foods in certain areas (food deserts).

Public Health Initiatives

The Australian government and various health organizations have implemented public health initiatives to address obesity. These initiatives focus on promoting healthy eating habits, encouraging physical activity, and increasing awareness about the health risks of obesity.

Prevention and Management

Obesity is preventable and manageable through lifestyle modifications, including adopting a balanced diet, engaging in regular physical activity, and seeking appropriate medical advice and support.

Health and Economic Impact

Obesity significantly burdens the healthcare system and the economy. It is associated with increased healthcare costs due to the treatment of related health conditions, productivity losses from absenteeism, and reduced work efficiency.

Weight Loss Interventions

For individuals with severe obesity or those who cannot lose weight through lifestyle changes alone, weight loss interventions, such as bariatric surgery, may be considered under medical supervision.

It’s important to note that obesity is a complex issue, and practical strategies to combat it require a multifaceted approach involving individuals, communities, healthcare professionals, policymakers, and the food industry.